Human trafficking, a modern form of slavery.
The expression of human being trafficking can be misleading. There are different forms of it: Sexual abuse, organ harvesting, bagging, forced marriage (controversial topic because of its still considered a cultural need), domestic servitude.
How we can distinguish human trafficking from people smuggling?
- Human Trafficking: no consent from the victim, the real coercion starts after crossing the board, it can placed or around the country of victim or transnational.
- People smuggling: there is a consent just for the journey, after the end of journey the smuggling ends, it is always transnational.
Who are the main target people?
Women and children are particularly affected they represent 56% of victims of forced economic exploitation and 98% forced for commercial sexual. Children are also trafficked to be exploited for begging or illegal activities.
There are different root causes of human trafficking, and vulnerability due to different criteria:
- Economic exclusion
- Armed conflicts
- Social and gender inequality
Which are usual methods control?
The restriction of all the movement, in fact the victim generally lives or in the same place where works (sexual abuse) or its strictly controlled with the confiscation of passport, visa, phone. There is a restriction to food and hygienic, medical care. Another way in which there could be control over the victim is sleep deprivation.
But what is the EU doing to address the problem of trafficking in Human being?
EU has approved a strategy to tackle the promotion of trafficking, collaborating with the European commission. European institutions, IOs etc. They planned five different priorities:
- Identify and protect, assist the victim;
- Increase the prosecution of trafficking;
- Strengthen the prevention of it;
- Policy coherence and enhancing coordination and cooperation;
- Provide an effective response to new concerns about it.
If then we want to answer to the question: which kind of motivations have immigrants, we have to distinguish between two different factors: Push/Pull Factors.
- Push Factors- conditions that push people out of their homeland.
- Pull Factors- conditions that attract people to a new area.
For example, the case of Second World War and the economic downturn after 1970 can be considered just few of these push and pull factors: many migrants after these period decided to leave their home trying to find a better job in a development country. As fears grew that foreign workers sought permanent residence, between 1973 and 1975, Western European governments instituted an “immigration stop” introducing restrictive measures to discourage immigration and to put a stop to recruiting foreign labour.
According to this fact, in EU’s legislation we may observe that there are two kind of borders, which are supposed to work differently for “internal immigrants” and external (and, usually, illegal) immigrants”:
Internal Border: Schengen agreement (most recently Switzerland) Common Visa Policy, Visa Information System (2007). Exceptions: new members after enlargement Restrictions on the freedom of movement in order to protect national labour markets.
External border: Reinforced via stricter border controls at the entry points into the EU (Frontex agency, recently implemented). Desire to protect and isolate. Need for import of labour force to compensate for demographic and specialization factors.